Free Books Excerpts on Zenodo:

Preface & Complete 1st Chapter – Book: “Philosophy Unscrambles Dark Matter” Preface thoroughly outlines the development and status of dark matter theory at the time of publishing this book. First chapter is like a combat between mathematical counterintuitive physics and human commonsense and explains that human commonsense equipped with proper philosophical approach is capable to deal with […]

FLRW Metric and ‘Expansion of Space’

We start from Wikipedia’s explanation of ‘Metric Expansion of Space’: “The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. It means that the early universe did not expand “into” anything and does […]

Cosmologists are finding new problems in their model yet they are not ready to accept that Universe is not Expanding

The latest story is that after finding that expansion rate of Universe is 9% faster than previously thought now they recalculate the age of Universe and say it must be one billion years younger than previous estimate of 13.8 billion years. The new estimate is around 12.5 billion years. The universe may be a billion […]

de-Sitter effect and the actual ‘prediction’ of redshift-distance relationship in year 1917:

Fritz Zwicky (so called father of dark matter) had proposed various alternative mechanisms to explain redshifts in those early days but he himself accepted that they did not work as expected. Since all other ‘mechanisms’ failed … so only the ‘velocity’ mechanism survived. But that was not just the survival of fittest thing. Hubble was skeptical of […]

Unscientific methodology of Science within the Big Bang Cosmology

Modern science, especially the Big Bang Cosmology, tends to explain little (observable) facts on the basis of ‘already known’ realities of whole universe. For example, our scientist (Georges Lemaître) already knows that ‘Universe is Expanding’. On the basis of this ‘already known’ larger fact of reality, he ‘explains’ observed redshifts of galaxies (little fact). Title […]

Can Mathematics discover unknown realities of Physical World?

Mathematics is quantitative extension of logic. It can move beyond logic only in exact quantitative terms. The basic realities are discovered through observations. Secondary realities are discovered through logic. Quantitative realities are derived from basic and secondary realities by using mathematics. Unfortunately Modern Physics is built on assumption that mathematics itself is capable to discover unknown […]

We get Redshifted light from all the directions. What are the possible interpretations?

We are getting redshifted light from everywhere. Now there are two possibilities: 1- Space is expanding at every scale and universe is expanding like a balloon. (far fetched idea – we should expect such an idea from pseudoscience or flat-earth type people). 2- Only light is getting redshifted per unit of distance. (Sensible idea – […]

Redshifts observed in far off galaxies are not the proof of Expansion of Universe

Big Bang Cosmologists deceptively tell us that Doppler’s Redshift observed in light coming from far off galaxies is the proof of expansion of universe. The fact is that the redshifts they have so observed are not Doppler’s Shifts at all. That is a different kind of redshift which is called Cosmological Redshift. Given the fact […]

According to FLRW model, Big Bang is taking place right now, everywhere

According to ‘FLRW metric’ expansion of space is taking place all the time everywhere. If 1 mm distance is becoming 2 mm in 1 billion years then 2 mm is becoming 4 mm in same 1 billion year and so on. Every length of space has to become double in same 1 billion years. So […]

Edwin Hubble did not say in 1929 that ‘Universe is Expanding’. Here is the original 1929 paper:

Edwin Hubble DID NOT say that Universe is expanding. Let us see what he actually said in year 1929. Following is link to his original 1929 paper: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae Title of the paper is: “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae.” Here “radial velocity” means “redshift”. […]