Free Books Excerpts on Zenodo:

Preface & Complete 1st Chapter – Book: “Philosophy Unscrambles Dark Matter” Preface thoroughly outlines the development and status of dark matter theory at the time of publishing this book. First chapter is like a combat between mathematical counterintuitive physics and human commonsense and explains that human commonsense equipped with proper philosophical approach is capable to deal with […]

FLRW Metric and ‘Expansion of Space’

We start from Wikipedia’s explanation of ‘Metric Expansion of Space’: “The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. It means that the early universe did not expand “into” anything and does […]

The actual Development of Cosmological Constant by Einstein

By 1916, Einstein had successfully presented his Field Equations of Gravity i.e. General Relativity (GR). In year 1917, he attempted to apply his GR equations to describe whole Universe. Following is the link to English Translation of Einstein (1917) paper: Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein starts by evaluating compatibility of General […]

‘Scientists’ are under delusion and they do think that Universe is ‘Governed’ by their theories.

After having seen that General Relativity (GR) has actually failed the test of Cosmos, now it is time to see that ‘scientists’ do think as if their beloved theories ‘govern’ the whole Universe. Examples are numerous but purpose of this blog post is not to present a great number of examples. It is quite general […]

General Relativity (GR) failed the test of Cosmology

Relativists always keep telling us that General Relativity (GR) has passed every test with flying colors. More precisely, they always tell us that every ‘prediction’ of GR has come true. Here we choose to accept that OK every test within the dynamical boundaries of Solar System was passed. We also choose to not question the […]

de-Sitter effect and the actual ‘prediction’ of redshift-distance relationship in year 1917:

Fritz Zwicky (so called father of dark matter) had proposed various alternative mechanisms to explain redshifts in those early days but he himself accepted that they did not work as expected. Since all other ‘mechanisms’ failed … so only the ‘velocity’ mechanism survived. But that was not just the survival of fittest thing. Hubble was skeptical of […]

Can Mathematics discover unknown realities of Physical World?

Mathematics is quantitative extension of logic. It can move beyond logic only in exact quantitative terms. The basic realities are discovered through observations. Secondary realities are discovered through logic. Quantitative realities are derived from basic and secondary realities by using mathematics. Unfortunately Modern Physics is built on assumption that mathematics itself is capable to discover unknown […]

We get Redshifted light from all the directions. What are the possible interpretations?

We are getting redshifted light from everywhere. Now there are two possibilities: 1- Space is expanding at every scale and universe is expanding like a balloon. (far fetched idea – we should expect such an idea from pseudoscience or flat-earth type people). 2- Only light is getting redshifted per unit of distance. (Sensible idea – […]

What should count as ‘Physical Proof’? Why Redshifts and CMBR serve as ‘Mathematical Proof’ rather than being ‘Physical Proof’ of Big Bang?

Physical proof is simply the experimental proof. The redshifts that scientists have observed in light coming from far off galaxies are NOT due to Doppler’s effect thus do not amount to physical proof. That is a different kind of redshift which is called Cosmological Redshift. This redshift is not proof of receding of anything. The […]

How idea of The Big Bang Initial Singularity Emerged?

In Modern Physics, there are two distinct forms of singularities which are (i) Black Hole Singularity and; (ii) Big Bang Initial Singularity. These so called ‘counter intuitive’ notions or concepts of ‘singularity’ are results of mistakes and misunderstandings rather than actual result taken from equations of mathematics. Development of scientific ideas is not outside the regime […]