In Modern Physics, there are two distinct forms of singularities which are (i) Black Hole Singularity and; (ii) Big Bang Initial Singularity. These so called ‘counter intuitive’ notions or concepts of ‘singularity’ are results of mistakes and misunderstandings rather than actual result taken from equations of mathematics. Development of scientific ideas is not outside the regime of epistemological principles. Scientific Knowledge is also evolved as progression of ideas. Ridiculous, non-sense or ‘counter intuitive’ ideas usually come from mistakes and not from genuine observations, deductions, inferences or mathematical derivations.

Ideas of above two kinds of ‘singularities’ are not older than early twentieth century though concept of ‘Black Holes’ can be traced to as early time as year 1783 when John Michell[i] first time pointed out the possibility of massive stars who could be able to trap light. He even provided the method to indirectly identify the presence of such ‘dark stars’ through the type of orbital motion of other visible stars in particular locality. Thanks to John Michell, he introduced genuinely possible concept of ‘black holes’ that was not based on ridiculous idea of ‘singularity’. The ‘super massive black holes’ that are now supposed to exist at center of galaxies are actually this type of non-singularity black holes. According to John Michell such ‘dark stars’ could have diameter as large as 500 times that of Sun. Therefore we see that original concept of black holes did not involve concept of singularities.

Following is a relevant quote from Wikipedia article on John Michell.

It was Michell who, in a paper for the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, read on 27 November 1783, first proposed the idea that there were such things as black holes, which he called “dark stars”. Having accepted Newton’s corpuscular theory of light, which posited that light consists of minuscule particles, he reasoned that such particles, when emanated by a star, would be slowed down by its gravitational pull, and thought that it might therefore be possible to determine the star’s mass based on the reduction in speed. This insight led in turn to the recognition that a star’s gravitational pull might be so strong that the escape velocity would exceed the speed of light. Michell calculated that this would be the case with a star more than 500 times the size of the Sun. Since light would not be able to escape such a star, it would be invisible. In his own words:

If there should really exist in nature any bodies, whose density is not less than that of the sun, and whose diameters are more than 500 times the diameter of the sun, since their light could not arrive at us; or if there should exist any other bodies of a somewhat smaller size, which are not naturally luminous; of the existence of bodies under either of these circumstances, we could have no information from sight; yet, if any other luminous bodies should happen to revolve about them we might still perhaps from the motions of these revolving bodies infer the existence of the central ones with some degree of probability, as this might afford a clue to some of the apparent irregularities of the revolving bodies, which would not be easily explicable on any other hypothesis; but as the consequences of such a supposition are very obvious, and the consideration of them somewhat beside my present purpose, I shall not prosecute them any further.

— John Michell, 1784[13]

Then comes the twentieth century where Einstein induced new spirit to mathematicians by giving them opportunity to find ‘solutions’ to his General Relativity equations. One early solution that emerged was by K. Schwarzschild[ii] whose work has now become basis of all the singularity based black hole physics.

The English translation title of his 1916 paper is “On the Gravitational Field of a Mass Point according to Einstein’s Theory”. The paper itself is too complicated to offer solid and consistent sense. But title of the paper is simple. It is talking about ‘Mass Point’ and the first impression that at least I get is that he is going to discuss gravity field in abstract mathematical terms. From the title, I am not getting the impression that he is going to invent brand new idea of a physically ‘massive singularity’. There is also nothing in whole paper that could indicate that he was talking about ‘massive singularity’ type of thing.


Above is a more relevant point in this paper where he was giving an example of ‘point mass’ equal to mass of sun. Well, if I write a book on gravity, I will also use similar examples. But instead of using term ‘point mass’ equal to mass of earth, I will use phrase “hologram earth with nothing solid but real gravity equal to the gravity of earth.” It will make simple for me to explain what should be the behavior of falling body if there is no solid ground capable to stop motion under gravity. Schwarzschild was trying to explain gravity field in this sense. But since his paper was too complex … It was prone to interpretation errors. Apparently same thing happened. He died soon after publication of this paper while some other Physicists, excluding Einstein, started taking this ‘point mass’ with literally real meanings and eventually these concepts became the basis of all the coming singularity based black hole physics. However Big Bang Initial Singularity was going to emerge from a different source.

The Big Bang Theory acknowledges Alexander Friedmann as its founder. Friedmann must be unaware of misinterpreted concept of singularity that emerged in year 1916. In 1922, Friedmann founded a genuine (not misinterpreted) concept of ‘monotonic world’.


The ‘monotonic world’ of Friedmann was not ‘point mass’ at all. Simply, it was radius of universe at time 0. Friedmann’s model is actually consistent with Steady State Model though in the Steady State model there is no time 0. Just like Steady State model, radius of universe is to be increased with increase (creation) of matter such that total density remains the same. According to Friedmann, at time 0, mass was also 0. His monotonic world was not a point mass – it was like a singularity which is not consistent with Big Bang Model. Following point in Friedmann’s 1922 paper clearly shows that radius of universe increases or decreases with increase or decrease of both time and mass content of universe and this thing aligns his model with the Steady State Model rather than with Big Bang Model.


Here ‘M’ stands for total mass contents of universe and x4 is fourth coordinate and denotes time. Its meaning is that with increase or decrease of time, mass content (M) has to increase or decrease. This point is clearly in line with Steady State Model and thus Big Bang Model is actually not supported by Friedmann’s model. And with this setup where mass is getting reduced if we go back in time, then at 0 time there has to be 0 mass. Hence Singularity of Friedmann is not consistent with the singularity of Modern Big Bang Cosmology where there is infinite mass (or density at least) at 0 time, 0 radius. And actually Big Bang model has no other source of initial singularity which means that essentially Big Bang Model’s ‘Initial Singularity’ has come from misunderstanding of Friedmann’s actual model.

By 1927 when Lemaître published his French article, he was not aware of Friedmann’s work. In 1927 article, there is no concept of singularity at all. There is a ‘pre-expansion universe’ which was static Einstein’s universe. But then ‘pressure of radiation’ caused equations to change (cosmological constant modified) and universe came under the rule of revised equations (revised by Lemaître himself). Thus Lemaître was unaware of singularities by 1927. Then it happens that in a meeting at a conference, Einstein told him that Friedmann had already talked about expansion stuff. Now onwards, Lemaître would start studying Friedmann and would misinterpret and absorb his ideas of monotonic world. In year 1931, Lemaître would first time talk about Primival Atom i.e. singularity sort of thing. For further detail, please see A Philosophical Rejection of The Big Bang Theory.

[i] Acknowledgement – I got introduction of role of John Michell from Mr.Bill Gaede.



“Universe is under no obligation to make sense”

Supporters of the Big Bang Theory often give reply to criticism of their theory in the form of above quoted argument.

Well … This is a misleading argument. This argument is correct but applies only to realities that are unknown. For example there may be an incomprehensible reality regarding how life started on earth. This is a reality but makes no sense simply because it is unknown. If a reality is known then it was comprehensible in the first place that’s why it has been ‘known’. But if there is a claim that a reality is known under an incomprehensible (counter intuitive) mode or category then either that ‘claimed reality’ is mere fiction or at the most, a distorted form of truth. Known realities are known because they could be known. They were comprehensible in the first place. They were compatible with the understanding abilities of human mind. Known realities must therefore make sense. They cannot be counter intuitive.

Steady State Theory is (or was) not the real competitor of the Big Bang Model as Steady State also submits to the notion of ‘Expanding Universe’. In case universe is not expanding then both Big Bang and Steady State theories are equally wrong. Thus if there is competition, that is within single niche. It is not exactly like competition between two different camps. They both operate within a single camp and the actual competing camp has yet to emerge. 

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The only so-called evidence of the Big Bang Theory is that Georges Lemaître had derived Hubble type redshift-distance relationship in light coming from far off galaxies from relativistic (GR) equations in year 1927 whereas Hubble could experimentally find this relationship in year 1929. In this way, it is claimed that (GR based) mathematics had already successfully predicted that important relationship two years before its actual discovery.

But this so-called evidence of the Big Bang Theory is not acceptable because Georges Lemaître had not derived that relationship from (GR) equations. In year 1927, he had derived that relationship not from GR equations but from a method which he took from Hubble himself.

Georges Lemaître’s 1927 French article remained unnoticed until he, with the help of his former teacher Arthur Eddington, published English translation of his 1927 article. That English Translation was published in year 1931 i.e. two years after the experimental discovery of redshift-distance relationship.

There was huge blunder in the 1931 translation article. In the original French article, there was whole para under equation No.23 where Lemaître had clearly mentioned that he had data of redshifts of various galaxies and he also took method of finding distance of those galaxies from Hubble. But in the manipulated translation of 1931, this whole para was replaced by a single sentence.


This crucial omission was in the notice of Arthur Eddington and he was guiding Lemaître to present translation in that particular way. Yes, he is the same Arthur Eddington who already had authenticated whole General Relativity through his famous (may be notorious) 1919 experiment of confirming bending of light ray during solar eclipse.


And following is translation of omitted para under eq.23. This translation is given at the end of this paper.

revised translation

In 1931, the strategy worked and GR equations were projected, through a manipulated translation, as having extraordinary magical powers. But equations had no magical power as such. It was a trick. Arthur Eddington was already expert in those tricks.

For further details please see: A Philosophical Rejection of The Big Bang Theory